Whats is a cigarette and what is in it?
Most people wonder what a cigarette is or what’s in it? Cigarette is French, which means “small cigar.” A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, and paper wrapping, which is usually white, though other colors are available. Cigars are typically composed entirely of whole-leaf tobacco.

What are the Benefits of not Smoking?

There are many benefits of choosing not to or quitting to smoke. When you quit smoking, you will live a better and longer life. You will be able to see the benefits almost immediately. Twenty minutes after you quit, your bood pressure has already decreased, your pulse rate has dropped and the temperature of your blood in your hands and feet has started to go up. After two hours, the amount of nicotine in your body has been reduced. Eight hours after quitting, the carbon monoxide level has been decreased. That makes the amount of oxygen is now equivalent to that of a non-smoker. One day after quitting smoking, the chance of you getting a heart attack has been greatly reduced. At two days, your sense of smell has been significantly improved, and your taste buds are getting back to normal. After two to four days all the nicotine by-products have been removed. Somewhere between the two to nine week range it should feel easier to do physical activity, because your lung function has been increased. After about three months your tar stains on your fingers and teeth should be eliminated. After the first nine months, you should have an easier time breathing. As the years go by the risks of cancers goes down by a lot It will seem like you never did smoke!

Some other benefits of not smoking are that you will have more money now. There will not be any need to waste money on cigarettes. There will also be an elimination of a fire risk. There are a surprising number of fires that are caused by smokers. People will also like to be around you more now that you will not always need to look for a place to smoke. Your breath will also be more fresh than before. You will also be able to do the following things: take deep breaths, be able to taste food, have a sense of smell, have more endurance, to not pollute the air and those around you, be free from the addiction, and have a major reduction of diseases and many types of cancers.


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Risks of Smoking:
How do cigarettes damage health?
Cigarettes contain more than 4000 chemical compounds and at least 400 toxic substances.
When you inhale, a cigarette burns at 700°C at the tip and around 60°C in the core. This heat breaks down the tobacco to produce various toxins.
As a cigarette burns, the residues are concentrated towards the butt.
The products that are most damaging are:

· tar, a carcinogen (substance that causes cancer)
· nicotine is addictive and increases cholesterol levels in your body
· carbon monoxide reduces oxygen in the body
· components of the gas and particulate phases cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD).
The damage caused by smoking is influenced by:
· the number of cigarettes smoked
· whether the cigarette has a filter
· how the tobacco has been prepared.
Smoking affects how long you live
Research has shown that smoking reduces life expectancy by seven to eight years.
Did you know?
On average, each cigarette shortens a smoker's life by around 11 minutes.
Of the 300 people who die every day in the UK as a result of smoking, many are comparatively young smokers.
The number of people under the age of 70 who die from smoking-related diseases exceeds the total figure for deaths caused by breast cancer, AIDS, traffic accidents and drug addiction.
Non-smokers and ex-smokers can also look forward to a healthier old age than smokers.

Major diseases caused by smoking
Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death due to smoking.
Hardening of the arteries is a process that develops over years, when cholesterol and other fats deposit in the arteries, leaving them narrow, blocked or rigid. When the arteries narrow (atherosclerosis), blood clots are likely to form.
Smoking accelerates the hardening and narrowing process in your arteries: it starts earlier and blood clots are two to four times more likely.
Cardiovasular disease can take many forms depending on which blood vessels are involved, and all of them are more common in people who smoke.
A fatal disease
Blood clots in the heart and brain are the most common causes of sudden death.

· Coronary thrombosis: a blood clot in the arteries supplying the heart, which can lead to a heart attack. Around 30 per cent are caused by smoking.
· Cerebral thrombosis: the vessels to the brain can become blocked, which can lead to collapse, stroke and paralysis.
· If the kidney arteries are affected, then high blood pressure or kidney failure results.
· Blockage to the vascular supply to the legs may lead to gangrene and amputation.
Smokers tend to develop coronary thrombosis 10 years earlier than non-smokers, and make up 9 out of 10 heart bypass patients.
Smokers are more likely to get cancer than non-smokers. This is particularly true of lung cancer, throat cancer and mouth cancer, which hardly ever affect non-smokers.
The link between smoking and lung cancer is clear.

· Ninety percent of lung cancer cases are due to smoking.
· If no-one smoked, lung cancer would be a rare diagnosis - only 0.5 per cent of people who've never touched a cigarette develop lung cancer.
· One in ten moderate smokers and almost one in five heavy smokers (more than 15 cigarettes a day) will die of lung cancer.
The more cigarettes you smoke in a day, and the longer you've smoked, the higher your risk of lung cancer. Similarly, the risk rises the deeper you inhale and the earlier in life you started smoking.
For ex-smokers, it takes approximately 15 years before the risk of lung cancer drops to the same as that of a non-smoker.
If you smoke, the risk of contracting mouth cancer is four times higher than for a non-smoker. Cancer can start in many areas of the mouth, with the most common being on or underneath the tongue, or on the lips.
Other types of cancer that are more common in smokers are:

· bladder cancer
· cancer of the oesophagus
· cancer of the kidneys
· cancer of the pancreas
· cervical cancer
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a collective term for a group of conditions that block airflow and make breathing more difficult, such as:
Term watch
Chronic means long term, not severe.

· emphysema - breathlessness caused by damage to the air sacs (alveoli)
· chronic bronchitis - coughing with a lot of mucus that continues for at least three months.
Smoking is the most common cause of COPD and is responsible for 80 per cent of cases.
It's estimated that 94 per cent of 20-a-day smokers have some emphysema when the lungs are examined after death, while more than 90 per cent of non-smokers have little or none.
COPD typically starts between the ages of 35 and 45 when lung function starts to decline anyway.
Quitting can help
Lung damage from COPD is permanent, but giving up smoking at any stage reduces the rate of decline in lung capacity.
In smokers, the rate of decline in lung function can be three times the usual rate. As lung function declines, breathlessness begins.
As the condition progresses, severe breathing problems can require hospital care. The final stage is death from slow and progressive breathlessness.

Other risks caused by smoking
Did you know?
A single cigarette can reduce the blood supply to your skin for over an hour.

· Smoking raises blood pressure, which can cause hypertension (high blood pressure) - a risk factor for heart attacks and stroke.
· Couples who smoke are more likely to have fertility problems than couples who are non-smokers.
· Smoking worsens asthma and counteracts asthma medication by worsening the inflammation of the airways that the medicine tries to ease.
· The blood vessels in the eye are sensitive and can be easily damaged by smoke, causing a bloodshot appearance and itchiness.
· Heavy smokers are twice as likely to get macular degeneration, resulting in the gradual loss of eyesight.
· Smokers run an increased risk of cataracts.
· Smokers take 25 per cent more sick days year than non-smokers.
· Smoking stains your teeth and gums.
· Smoking increases your risk of periodontal disease, which causes swollen gums, bad breath and teeth to fall out.
· Smoking causes an acid taste in the mouth and contributes to the development of ulcers.
· Smoking also affects your looks: smokers have paler skin and more wrinkles. This is because smoking reduces the blood supply to the skin and lowers levels of vitamin A.